BIO4: Towards carbon neutrality in Copenhagen




Anders Nimgaard Schultz

Anders Nimgaard Schultz

Vice Director of Power Generation
T: +45 5161 3395

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The City of Copenhagen aims to become the world’s first carbon-neutral capital by 2025. Greater Copenhagen Utility HOFOR is supporting the City in achieving this goal through several initiatives, including the conversion of Amagerværket power plant from fossil fuels to biomass.

Amager power plant consists of two units: One from 1971, which was converted to wood pellets in 2010, and one which runs on coal. The latter has been replaced by a new unit, BIO4, which is running on sustainable wood chips. The entire power and heat generation at the plant is now based on renewable energy. The bioconversion has resulted in CO2 reductions of 1 million tonnes, corresponding to the emissions from 500,000 cars, and has made the district heating supply in the Danish Capital more than 80 per cent carbon neutral.

High flexibility and energy efficiency

”In addition to providing green energy to the Copenhageners, BIO4 is highly flexible. When the supply of wind energy is high or the demand for heat is high, the plant can generate heat only – up to 585 MJ per second – and when there is a demand for power too, the plant can generate both heat and power”, says Anders Nimgaard Schultz, Vice Director in Ramboll’s Power Division.

BIO4 covers approx. 25 per cent of the heat demand in Copenhagen.

The new unit has an energy efficiency of more than 110 per cent, which is up to 30 per cent higher than the efficiency of the old coal-fired unit.

“It has been possible to achieve such a high energy efficiency by utilizing flue gas condensation. In comparison with other combined heat and power plants, an energy efficiency of 110 per cent is best in class”, says Anders Nimgaard Schultz.

Multidisciplinary team

Ramboll played a central role in the implementation of BIO4. Ramboll had employees in many very important and central positions in the project. Ramboll staff filled the positions of Construction Manager, Commissioning Manager and QA/QC Manager in addition to providing consultancy on the turbine, biomass storage, balance of plant, electrical systems, DCS, risk calculations (HAZOP), 2D and 3D CAD, the new office building, site operation, site supervision, Operation & Maintenance and HSE on site.

“Ramboll had a team with the ability to take the project from A to Z as well as experience from the conversion of power plants to green energy generation in all the largest cities in Denmark and internationally”, says Anders Nimgaard Schultz.

Ramboll was also the Owner’s Engineer on the bioconversion of Avedøre power plant, Studstrup power plant and Asnæs power plant. Outside the borders of Denmark, Ramboll is providing consultancy services on the bioconversion of power plants in the UK, the Netherlands, Germany and Japan.

Project details

  • Energy generation: Power and heat or heat only
  • Boiler based on circulating fluidized bed technology
  • Flue gas cleaning with flue gas condensation
  • Capacity: 185 tonnes of wood chips per hour at full load
  • Annual sustainable wood chip consumption: 1.2 million tonnes
  • Two contained facilities for storage of wood chips and conveyors
  • Architecture: BIO4 will be a green landmark for the city of Copenhagen and a recreational area for the citizens and tourists, who will be allowed access to the plant premises and enjoy the view from a height of 40 metres.


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